This is not true. While there is contention over who invented the Nine Noble Virtues, the candidates are either John “Stubba” Yeowell and John “Hoskuld” Gibbs-Bailey of the Odinic Rite, Stephen McNallen after establishing the Ásatrú Folk Assembly, or Edred Thorsson while he was a member of the Ásatrú Free Assembly. Since both organizations exist or existed in support of white supremacy and racism, Heathens do not adhere to the Nine Noble Virtues as a moral guideline. Moreover, since the Nine Noble Virtues were invented in the late 1970s, Heathens view them as ahistorical.